Corona virus (COVID-19) Disease

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


COVID-19 affects different people in different ways. Most infected people will develop mild to moderate illness and recover without hospitalization.

Most common symptoms:-


  • fever
  • cough
  • tiredness
  • loss of taste or smell,
  • Less common symptoms:
  • sore throat
  • headache
  • aches and pains
  • diarrhoea
  • a rash on skin, or discolouration of fingers or toes
  • red or irritated eyes
  • Serious symptoms:
  • difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • loss of speech or mobility, or confusion
  • chest pain,

Seek immediate medical attention if you have serious symptoms. Always call before visiting your doctor or health facility. People with mild symptoms who are otherwise healthy should manage their symptoms at home.On average it takes 5–6 days from when someone is infected with the virus for symptoms to show, however it can take up to 14 days.

Where was COVID-19 first discovered?

The first known infections from SARS-CoV-2 were discovered in Wuhan, China. The original source of viral transmission to humans remains unclear, as does whether the virus became pathogenic before or after the spillover event.

What are coronaviruses?

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.

When did the coronavirus disease receive its name?

The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) announced “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)” as the name of the new virus on 11 February 2020. This name was chosen because the virus is genetically related to the coronavirus responsible for the SARS outbreak of 2003. While related, the two viruses are different.

Is COVID-19 caused by a virus or a bacteria?

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a virus, NOT by bacteria.

What are the primary symptoms of COVID-19?

Some of the primary symptoms to look for in a Covid 19 infected person are fever, dizziness, breathlessness, headache, dry cough ( eventually result in phlegm) and in a few cases loss in smell and taste. A few cases have also reported diarrhoea and fatigue.

Can the coronavirus disease be transmitted through water?

Drinking water is not transmitting COVID-19. And, if you swim in a swimming pool or in a pond, you cannot get COVID-19 through water. But what can happen, if you go to a swimming pool, which is crowded and if you are close to other the people and if someone is infected, then you can be of course affected.

Can air conditioners (AC) be used during the COVID-19 pandemic?

Owing to the heat and humidity, the use of an air conditioner is unavoidable, especially in regions with hot climate. The stand alone air conditioners that we use in our homes are relatively safe to use. It is strongly recommended to open all windows whenever possible for fresh air circulation. Window can also be kept minimally open when the AC is running. There is no evidence that proves that SARS-CoV-2 spreads from the air coming out of air conditioning systems. According to a standard advisory, the temperature of a home run AC should be 24-30 degree celsius and the humidity should ideally be between 40-70%.

Can COVID-19 be transmitted through food?

There is currently no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from food. The virus that causes COVID-19 can be killed at temperatures similar to that of other known viruses and bacteria found in food.

What are the organs most affected by COVID‐19?

The lungs are the organs most affected by COVID‐19.

How long does it take for symptoms of the coronavirus disease to appear?

On average it takes 5–6 days from when someone is infected with the virus for symptoms to show, however it can take up to 14 days.

How accurate are COVID-19 rapid tests?

Antigen tests are still fairly accurate, particularly when someone is experiencing symptoms and their viral load is very high. However, they can be less accurate when someone has a lower viral load, such as in someone without symptoms. This could lead to false negative test results.

Does rapid antigen test detect Omicron?

Rapid antigen tests for COVID-19 may not reliably detect the omicron variant during the first few days of infection, even when a person is shedding the virus in high enough quantities to be contagious, preliminary evidence hints.

What are some of the types of COVID-19 tests?

There are different types of coronavirus tests that can be done:-
Swab Test :– In this case, a special swab is used to take a sample from your nose or throat.
Nasal aspirate: – In this case, a saline solution will be injected into your nose and, then a sample is taken with a light suction.

Can COVID-19 be detected by CT scan?

Along with laboratory testing, chest CT scans may be helpful to diagnose COVID-19 in individuals with a high clinical suspicion of infection.

How does the COVID-19 sputum test work?

Sputum Test: – Sputum is thick mucus that gets accumulated in the lungs and comes out with a cough. During this test, you’re required to cough up sputum in a special cup or a swab is used to take a sample from your nose.

What nutrition guidance should I follow during the coronavirus disease outbreak?

Proper nutrition and hydration are vital. People who eat a well-balanced diet tend to be healthier with stronger immune systems and lower risk of chronic illnesses and infectious diseases. So you should eat a variety of fresh and unprocessed foods every day to get the vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre, protein and antioxidants your body needs. Drink enough water.

Does COVID-19 vaccine work?

COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective. You may have side effects after vaccination, but these are normal. It typically takes two weeks after you are fully vaccinated for the body to build protection (immunity) against the virus that causes COVID-19. If you are not vaccinated, find a vaccine.

What are some symptoms of the new Omicron variant of COVID-19?

Dr Angelique Coetzee, the South African doctor who first alerted authorities to the presence of the new COVID-19 variant, has said muscle aches, fatigue, a scratchy throat and night sweats are common Omicron symptoms.



Asymptomatic cases, mild cases of COVID-19:- Isolate yourself in a well ventilated room.Use a triple layer medical mask, discard mask after 8 hours of use or earlier if they become wet or visibly soiled. In the event of a caregiver entering the room, both caregiver and patient may consider using N 95 mask.Mask should be discarded only after disinfecting it with 1% Sodium Hypochlorite. Take rest and drink a lot of fluids to maintain adequate hydration. Follow respiratory etiquettes at all times.Frequent hand washing with soap and water for at least 40 seconds or clean with alcohol-based sanitizer. Don’t share personal items with other people in the household. Ensure cleaning of surfaces in the room that are touched often (tabletops, doorknobs, handles, etc.) with 1% hypochlorite solution. Monitor temperature daily. Monitor oxygen saturation with a pulse oximeter daily. Connect with the treating physician promptly if any deterioration of symptoms is noticed.

Instructions for caregivers:

Mask:- The caregiver should wear a triple layer medical mask. N95 mask may be considered when in the same room with the ill person.

Hand hygiene:- Hand hygiene must be ensured following contact with ill person or patient’s immediate environment.Exposure to patient/patient’s environment:-

Avoid direct contact with body fluids of the patient, particularly oral or respiratory secretions. Use disposable gloves while handling the patient. Perform hand hygiene before and after removing gloves.

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