Pneumonia, definition of pneumonia, types of pneumonia, clinical manifestation, riks factors, complication of pneumonia, and medical management, (by GS India Nursing)

Definition of pneumonia:- It is an inflammation of lung parenchyma which is associated with market increase interstitial and alveolar fluid. Pneumonia is the inflammation of lungs parenchyma associated with Interstitial and alveolar fluid accumulation.


  • Bacteria — diplococcus pneumoniae, streptococci, streptococcus aureus.
  • Fungus — Candida
  • Virus — CMV (cytomegalovirus virus), adenovirus, influenza virus,

Clinical manifestation:-

  • Fever (high in bacterial infection and mild in viral infection).
  • Chills.
  • Sweating.
  • Pleuritic pain.
  • Coughing.
  • Sputum production.
  • Haemoptysis (cough with blood).
  • Dyspnea.
  • Hot (pallor skin).
  • Low O2 saturation.
  • Dull sound produce on percussion.
  • Unequal chest wall expansion.
  • Weakness.
  • Coughing.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Rapid shallow breathing.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Fatigue.
  • Lethargy.
  • Chest pain.
  • Sneezing and runny nose.
  • Sore throat.
  • Headache.
  • Malaise
  • Chest indrawing.
  • Restlessness.
  • Anorexia.
  • Fear of death.

Rics factors:-

  • Air pollution/Aspiration.
  • Bed rest/prolonged immobility.
  • Chronic lung disease.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Endotracheal incubation.
  • Full day smoker.
  • Growing malnutrition.
  • HIV.
  • Immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Chronic of obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Poor nutrition.
  • Kidney Disease.
  • Heart failure.
  • Sever infection
  • Smoking
  • Alcoholism

Complication of pneumonia:-

  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome. (ARDS). This is a severe from of respiratory failure.
  • Lungs abscess. These are pockets of pus that from inside or around the lung.
  • Respiratory failure. These requires the use of a breathing machine or ventilator.
  • Pleural effusion. (Fluid accumulation around the lungs).
  • Difficulty of breathing.
  • Severe hypoxemia.
  • Empyma.
  • Endocarditis.
  • Death.

Types of Pneumonia:-

Bronchopneumonia:- (Bacterial pneumonia) A type of pneumonia that cause of inflammation in the alveoli.

Lobular Pneumonia:- It is a serious infection in which the air sacs fill with pus and other liquid. Lobular pneumonia affects one or more section (lobes) of the lungs.

Patchy Pneumonia:- Pneumonia is an infection of the air sacs of the lungs that often produces a patchy or opaque appearance X-Ray.

Lobula Pneumonia: in this pneumonia, any whone lobes of the lungs are affected.


  • Chest X-Ray
  • Blood investigation
  • Lung biopsy
  • Thorecentesis
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Medical history
  • History collection
  • Physical examination


  • Prevention of Pneumonia by vaccination.
  • Use of antibiotic therapy for treatment.
  • Penicillin.
  • Erythromycin.
  • Cephalosporin.
  • Amikacin (drugs of choice).
  • Ampicillin.
  • Ceftriaxone.
  • Bronchodilators are used
  • Analgesics for chest pain e.g. Aspirin.

I hope that you liked this article.

Thanking you!!….. by GS India Nursing!!

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