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What is epilepsy, it’s causes, symptoms & treatment. How many types of epilepsy? Who is affected by Epilepsy?


Epilepsy is called “seizure disorder.

The risk of premature death in people with epilepsy is up to three times higher than for the general population. Epilepsy is a chronic non-communicable disease of the brain that affects around 50 million people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the body or the entire body and are sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.

Who is affected by Epilepsy

Epilepsy affects both males and females. Epilepsy may occur as a result of a genetic disorder or an acquired brain injury, such as a trauma or stroke. A disorder in which nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed, causing seizures. Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations and sometimes loss of awareness. Epilepsy is a chronic noncommunicable disease of the brain that affects people of all ages.

Causes of epilepsy-

Major Epilepsy causes are chronic illness, problems during delivery, tumor, brain injury, infections of the brain and abnormal brain development. There are several reasons you might have a seizure. These include high fever, very low blood sugar, head trauma, and even alcohol withdrawal.


The main symptom of epilepsy is recurrent seizures. However, if a person experiences one or more of the following symptoms, they should seek medical attention, as it may indicate epilepsy: a convulsion with no fever. During a seizure, a person experiences abnormal behaviour, symptoms and sensations, sometimes including loss of consciousness. There are few symptoms between seizures. Seizure symptoms can vary widely. Some people with epilepsy simply stare blankly for a few seconds during a seizure, while others repeatedly twitch their arms or legs. Having a single seizure doesn’t mean you have epilepsy. Panic or anger is also symptoms of epilepsy.

How many types of epilepsy?

Types of Epilepsy

There are many types of seizures,

Four basic types based on the seizures you’re having- Generalized epilepsy, Focal epilepsy, Generalized and focal epilepsy.

Temporal lobe seizures, a category of focal seizures, are the most common type of epilepsy.


Your doctor may also suggest tests to detect brain abnormalities, such as:-

To diagnose your condition, your doctor will review your symptoms and medical history. Your doctor may order several tests to diagnose epilepsy and determine the cause of seizures – include,

Blood tests,

Neurological exam,

The best tests is, electroencephalogram is used to check for unusual electrical activity in the brain that can happen in people with epilepsy. During the test, small sensors are attached to your scalp to pick up the electrical signals produced when brain cells send messages to each other.

Common Treatment for Epilepsy-

Anti-epileptic drugs, AEDs are the most commonly used treatment for epilepsy. They help control seizures in around 7 out of 10 of people.

Surgery to remove a small part of the brain that’s causing the seizures.

Special diet (ketogenic diet) that can help control seizures.

Latest treatment for epilepsy-

Food and Drug Administration approved a deep brain stimulation device, manufactured by Medtronic, that sends electrical pulses through the brain to reduce the frequency of seizures.

I hope that you liked this article.

Thanking you!!

Author: Reena Singh Patel, B.Sc.Nursing, M.Sc. Nursing & Pharmacist & others.

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