Myxoedema is an anatomical disease that arises due to underactivity of the thyroid gland.Different symptoms appear at different ages due to deficiency of thyroid juice. So there are different names of Mixodima according to age. This disease is often found in patients of the same lineage and is transmitted by parents.
Myxedema is a term generally used to denote severe hypothyroidism. Myxedema is also used to describe the dermatologic changes that occur in hypothyroidism and occasionally hyperthyroidism.
A doctor will make a diagnosis after seeing if a person’s symptoms are consistent with severe hypothyroidism. They may also perform a blood test to be sure.
A person with a high level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) may have hypothyroidism, as the body may produce extra TSH to make up for the underactive thyroid. As a result, a doctor may measure how much TSH a person’s pituitary gland produces.
A thyroxine or T4 test can also be taken to measure a person’s T4 level. Low levels of T4 are a good indicator of hypothyroidism, especially if combined with high levels of TSH.
If a doctor believes that a person has hypothyroidism, they will perform more tests to measure thyroid function and to find an underlying cause.
If a doctor suspects myxedema coma, they will recommend that treatment begins immediately. The sooner a person is treated, the more likely they are to recover.
Causes- Myxedema occurs because of severe hypothyroidism that is not diagnosed or is not treated successfully. A person ceasing to take their medication can cause this complication.
Hypothyroidism develops because the thyroid stops working as it should. Causes of hypothyroidism include:-
iodine deficiency or an excess of iodine,
sudden illness or infection,
autoimmune conditions, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis,
surgical removal of the thyroid,
other medications, including lithium,beta blockers,and anesthesia,
Radiation therapy to treat cancer,
Myxedema is a serious condition. Any person displaying symptoms of myxedema or severe hypothyroidism must receive medical attention urgently.
A person with myxedema may notice swelling in their face, legs, or tongue. Their skin may also become dry and pale.
Other symptoms of severe hypothyroidism can include:-
- weight gain,
- drooping eye,
- decreased breathing,
- intolerance to cold,
- decreased breathing,
- coarse hair,
- low energy,
- low body temperature,
- reduced mobility,
- Myxedema can also lead to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide levels in the blood.
Complications of myxedema include:-
decreased drug metabolism, leading to overdosing of medications,
pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia,miscarriage, and stillbirth,
Myxedema coma is a rare but severe complication of myxedema. It is a life-threatening complication with a mortality rate of 25- 60 percent and tends to affect older adults.
Symptoms of myxedema coma include a severe drop in body temperature, reduced breathing, and central nervous system failure, alongside other symptoms of hypothyroidism.
Hypothyroidism is treated with a synthetic version of the T4 thyroxine hormone called levothyroxine. This restores T4 hormone levels and can help relieve associated symptoms.
A person with myxedema is likely to stay in an intensive care unit with continual monitoring and treatment, and recovery may take several weeks.
A myxedema coma requires immediate admission to a hospital. Treatment involves administering thyroid hormone replacement medication into a vein. Antibiotics,steroid treatment, and breathing support may be necessary also.
A person may need breathing assistance, such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) if carbon dioxide levels in the blood are very high. Doctors will also monitor heart rhythms and blood pressure carefully.
A person who recovers from myxedema will need to continue to take medication, probably for the rest of their life.
What causes myxedema?
- surgical removal of your thyroid,
- radiation therapy for cancer,
- iodine deficiency or an excess of iodine,
- immune system medications, like those used in cancer treatment,
- an autoimmune condition, including Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
What is myxedema disease?
Myxedema is another term for severely advanced hypothyroidism. It’s a condition that occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormone. The thyroid is a small gland that sits right at the front of your neck.
When does myxedema occur?
Myxedema refers to a severe form of hypothyroidism than can occur when the condition is left untreated or is not treated sufficiently. The term also applies to the effects that hypothyroidism can have on the skin, making it appear swollen and puffy.
Why is it called myxedema coma?
When the levels of thyroid hormones become very low, the symptoms get worse and can result in a serious condition called myxedema coma.
What is cretinism and myxedema?
Cretinism is hypothyroidism in children. Failure of thyroid secretion causes retardation of growth of all forms (physical, mental and sexual) in young ones. Cretinism occurs from the deficiency of thyroid hormone. Myxoedema: On the other hand, myxedema is caused in adults due to the deficiency of thyroid hormones.
What does myxedema skin look like?
Generalized myxedema is a manifestation of severe hypothyroidism developing over an extended period of time causing skin that appears waxy, doughy, swollen (although non-pitting) and dry.
What are the signs and symptoms of myxedema?
Coarse or thinning hair,
Decreased pulse pressure, normal systolic pressure, elevated diastolic pressure,
Decreased respiratory rate.
How do I get rid of Myxoedema?
Treatment involves administering thyroid hormone replacement medication into a vein. Antibiotics, steroid treatment, and breathing support may be necessary also. A person may need breathing assistance, such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) if carbon dioxide levels in the blood are very high.
Can myxedema be cured?
Depending on the cause, myxedema can be treated with thyroid replacement hormones. These medications are effective in eliminating the symptoms that accompany myxedema and hypothyroidism. If you are prescribed thyroid replacement medications, you will probably need to take them for the rest of your life.
How is myxedema diagnosed?
It often is possible to diagnose myxedema on clinical grounds alone. Characteristic symptoms are weakness, cold intolerance, mental and physical slowness, dry skin, typical facies, and hoarse voice. Results of the total serum thyroxine and free thyroxine index tests usually will confirm the diagnosis.
What kind of doctor treats myxedema?
For patients with myxedema coma, consult a critical care intensivist regarding admission to an ICU and optimization treatment. An endocrinologist should be consulted to help confirm the diagnosis and assist in patient management after admission.
What happens during a myxedema crisis?
Myxedema crisis is a life-threatening extreme form of hypothyroidism with a high mortality rate if left untreated. Myxedema crisis is commonly seen in older patients, especially women, and is associated with signs of hypothyroidism, hypothermia, hyponatremia, hypercarbia, and hypoxemia.
Is myxedema a primary or secondary disorder?
The most severe form of hypothyroidism is myxedema, a medical emergency. Hypothyroidism can be caused by a problem with the thyroid itself (primary), or by the malfunction of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus (secondary).
Why is hydrocortisone given in myxedema coma?
It is generally deemed prudent to treat with hydrocortisone because of the possibility of coexistent primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency but also because of the possibility that thyroid hormone therapy may increase cortisol clearance and precipitate adrenal insufficiency – Hydrocortisone usually is given .
How do you know if you have myxedema?
Myxedema Coma Symptoms,
Weakness or lethargy. Confusion or non-responsiveness. Feeling cold. Low body temperature.
What hormone deficiency can cause myxedema?
Hypothyroidism is thyroid hormone deficiency. It is diagnosed by clinical features such as a typical facial appearance, hoarse slow speech, and dry skin and by low levels of thyroid hormones. Management includes administration of thyroxine.
How does myxedema affect the body?
Decreased breathing (respiratory depression) lower than normal blood sodium levels. hypothermia (low body temperature) confusion or mental slowness.
What is the main characteristic of myxedema?
It is often possible to diagnose myxedema on clinical grounds alone. Characteristic symptoms are weakness, cold intolerance, mental and physical slowness, dry skin, typical facies, and hoarse voice. Results of the total serum thyroxine and free thyroxine index tests usually will confirm the diagnosis.
What are some possible treatments for myxedema?
The most important elements in treatment of myxedema coma are early recognition, presumptive thyroid hormone replacement, hydrocortisone and appropriate supportive care.
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