What is hormone? types of harmones & it’s functions & endocrine harmones examples: Prolactin hormone (responsible for production of milk), Oxytocin Harmone (responsible for release of milk from the breasts), adrenaline harmone, GH, FSH, LH Harmones:


It is often referred to as a ‘chemical messenger’.

Hormones are chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body. Hormones are your body’s chemical messengers. Hormones are powerful. It takes only a tiny amount to cause big changes in cells or even your whole body. Hormones are required for the correct development of animals, plants and fungi. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal glands, and pancreas. In addition, men produce hormones in their testes and women produce them in their ovaries.  Hormones are chemicals that coordinate different functions in your body by carrying messages through your blood to your organs, skin, muscles and other tissues. These signals tell your body what to do and when to do it.  For example, insulin is a hormone that’s made by the beta cells in the pancreas. They are secreted by special tissues in our body through endocrine glands.

Types of Hormones-

Do you know, 50 different types of hormones which control a number of functions including metabolism, reproduction, growth, mood, and sexual health. Three major types of hormones-

1- Steroid hormones are derived from lipids.

2- Protein hormones are made of chains of amino acids. An example is ADH  which decreases blood pressure.

3- Amine hormones are derived from amino acids.

One of the key distinguishing features of lipid-derived hormones is that they can diffuse across plasma membranes whereas the amino acid-derived and peptide hormones cannot.

What is the Functions of hormones?

Hormones also influence the way the body uses and stores energy and control the volume of fluid and the levels of salts and sugar in the blood. The hormones created and released by the glands in your body’s endocrine system control nearly all the processes in your body. These chemicals help coordinate your body’s functions, from metabolism to growth and development, emotions, mood, sexual function and even sleep.

Hormones are present in human body.

Fifty hormones have been identified in humans and other vertebrates. Hormones control or regulate many biological processes and are often produced in exceptionally low amounts within the body. Hormones are the chemicals the endocrine system uses to send messages to organs and tissue throughout the body. Once released into the bloodstream, they travel to their target organ or tissue, which has receptors that recognize and react to the hormone. Sometimes, hormone levels can be too high or too low. When this happens, it can have a number of effects on your health. The signs and symptoms depend on the hormone that’s out of balance. 

Which body part produces hormones?

Endocrine system are the hypothalamus,parathyroids, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organs. The pancreas is also a part of this system; it has a role in hormone production as well as in digestion.

Hypothalamus hormones

The hormones produced in the hypothalamus are corticotrophin-releasing hormone, dopamine, growth hormone-releasing hormone, somatostatin, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone.

Functions of hypothalamus

The function of the hypothalamus is to maintain your body’s internal balance, which is known as homeostasis. To do this, the hypothalamus helps stimulate or inhibit many of your body’s key processes, including: Heart rate and blood pressure. The hypothalamus plays a significant role in the endocrine system.

Parathyroid hormones

Parathyroid hormone, also called parathormone or parathyrine is a peptide hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates the serum calcium concentration through its effects on bone, kidney, and intestine.  

Functions of parathyroid hormones-

Release of calcium by bones into the bloodstream. Absorption of calcium from food by the intestines. Conservation of calcium by the kidneys.

Pituitary hormones

  • Adrenocorticotrophic hormone.
  • Prolactin.
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH).
  • Growth hormone (GH).
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Functions of pituitary hormones-

It essential role in regulating the functions of various other endocrine glands and maintaining overall hormone levels in the blood. The pituitary gland controls the autonomic nervous system, which plays an essential role in regulating various involuntary functions of the body, including body temperature, hunger and thirst, urination, heartbeat, and sleep.

Thyroid hormones

The thyroid gland is essential to the endocrine system. It is located in front of the neck and is responsible for the production of thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland releases triiodothyronine hormone and thyroxine  hormone. These hormones play an important role in regulation of your weight, energy levels, internal temperature, skin, hair, nail growth, and more. Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine and thyroxine. They are tyrosine-based hormones that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism.

functions of Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones affect every cell and all the organs of the body. They: Regulate the rate at which calories are burned, affecting weight loss or weight gain. Can slow down or speed up the heartbeat. The thyroid gland releases triiodothyronine  and thyroxine . These hormones play an important role in regulation of your weight, energy levels, internal temperature, skin, hair, nail growth, and more. The thyroid hormones are essential to proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. They also stimulate vitamin metabolism. Numerous physiological and pathological stimuli influence thyroid hormone synthesis. 

Adrenal gland hormones

The adrenal glands are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol. They are found above the kidneys. Each gland has an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces three main types of steroid  hormones- mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid, and androgens.

Functions of Adrenal gland hormone-

This is the main function of Adrenal glands, which produce hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, response to stress and other essential functions.

Peneal  hormone

The pineal gland also plays a role in the regulation of female hormone levels, and it may affect fertility and the menstrual cycle. The pineal gland is a small, pea- shaped gland in the brain. Its function is not fully understood. Researchers do know that it produces and regulates some hormones, including melatonin. Melatonin is the best known for the role it plays in regulating sleep patterns.  Sleep patterns are also called circadian rhythms.

Functions of Pineal gland hormone-

IT is called the ‘third eye,’ the pineal gland is a small gland located deep in the center of the brain. The main function of the pineal gland is to receive information about the state of the light-dark cycle from the environment and convey this information to produce and secrete the hormone melatonin. The pineal gland is best known for the secretion of the hormone melatonin, which is released into the blood and possibly also into the brain fluid, known as cerebrospinal fluid.

Reproductive gland hormones-

In the female of the species the reproductive cells are the egg cells, and in the male the reproductive cells are the sperm. The female gonad, the ovary, produces egg cells. A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes and sex hormones of an organism.

Functions of the reproductive hormones-

The two major functions of the gonads in the adult are steroid hormone production and gametogenesis. Reproductive hormones are also pivotal in sexual differentiation, fetal development, growth and sexual maturation. These organs are responsible for producing the egg and sperm cells gametes, and hormones. These hormones function in the maturation of the reproductive system, the development of sexual characteristics, and regulation of the normal physiology of the reproductive system.

FAQ in all nursing examination & others examinations:

Q. What is the examples of endocrine harmone?

Ans. Examples of endocrine harmones are Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Growth hormone (GH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Q. What are the more examples of endocrine glands?

Ans. the more examples of endocrine glands are – pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands, pancreas, thymus, Hypothalamus, pineal gland, Thyroid gland, parathyroid gland etc.

Q. Which hormone is called fight or fight hormone?

Ans. Adrenaline Harmone is called fight or flight Harmone. Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions.

Q. Which hormone in the body is responsible for the production of milk or lactation?

Ans. Prolactin hormone in the body is responsible for the production of milk or lactation. The level of prolactin in the blood increases markedly during pregnancy, and stimulates the growth and development of the mammary tissue, in preparation for the production of milk.

Q. Which hormone in the body is responsible for the release of milk from the breasts?

Ans. Oxytocin hormone in the body is responsible for the release of milk from the breasts. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide normally produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary. It plays a role in reproduction, social bonding, childbirth, and the period after childbirth. Oxytocin is also called “love harmone.”

I hope that you liked this article.

Thanking you!!

Author: Reena Singh (GS India Nursing Academy, Lucknow, India).

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