In this article, we will understand detailed and accurate information about Vaccination for children & Why is vaccine needed for children. (Sources– ncbi.nih, CDC & mayoclinic.org, wikipedia, & others) Author: Reena Singh Patel (B.Sc.Nursing, M.Sc.Nursing & Pharmacist & others)
Vaccination for children:
Vaccination is one of the best ways parents can protect infants, children, and teens from 16 potentially harmful diseases that can be very serious, may require hospitalization, or even be deadly.
And immunizations are not just for children. Protection from some childhood vaccines can wear off over time. Adults may also be at risk for vaccine-preventable disease due to age, job, lifestyle, travel, or health conditions.
Review the tabs below to learn what other vaccines you and your family may need. Check with your family’s healthcare professionals to make sure everyone is up to date on recommended vaccines.
Parents should try to have their children vaccinated according to the schedule. A significant delay in vaccination puts children at risk of the serious diseases the vaccines could prevent.
In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source keeps us informed about which vaccines should be given to people of all ages.
They recommend that several vaccines be given during infancy and childhood. Read on to learn more about the CDC’s vaccine guidelines for young children.
Some of the vaccines may be given as part of a combination vaccine so that a child gets fewer shots. Talk with your doctor about which vaccines your kids need.
As a parent, you want to do whatever you can to protect your child and keep them safe and healthy. Vaccines are a vital way to do that. They help protect your child from a range of dangerous and preventable diseases.
How many vaccines do babies get in the first year?
Currently, 16 vaccines – some requiring multiple doses at specific ages and times – are recommended from birth to 18 years old. Recommended vaccines include: Influenza (annual flu shot) Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTaP)
The HepA vaccine can be given as early as 6 months of age to babies who will travel to a place where hepatitis A is common (they will still need routine vaccination after their first birthday). It’s also recommended for older kids who did not get it in the past.
The MMR vaccine can be given to babies as young as 6 months old if they will be traveling internationally. These children should still get the recommended routine doses at 12–15 months and 4–6 years of age, but can get the second dose as early as 4 weeks after the first if they will still be traveling and at risk.
The flu vaccine is especially important for kids who are at risk for health problems from the flu. High-risk groups include, but aren’t limited to, kids younger than 5 years old and those with chronic medical conditions, such as asthma, heart problems, sickle cell disease, diabetes, or HIV.
Pneumococcal vaccines can be given to older kids (age 2 and up) who have conditions that affect their immune systems, such as asplenia or HIV infection, or other conditions, like a cochlear implant, chronic heart disease, or chronic lung disease.
The meningococcal vaccines can be given to kids as young as 8 weeks old (depending on the vaccine brand) who are at risk for a meningococcal infection, such as meningitis. This includes children with some immune disorders. Kids who live in (or will travel to) countries where meningitis is common, or where there is an outbreak, also should get the vaccine.
This schedule of recommended immunizations may vary depending upon where you live, your child’s health, the type of vaccine, and the vaccines available.
HepB: Hepatitis B vaccine. Ideally, the first dose is given within 24 hours of birth, but kids not previously immunized can get it at any age. Some low birth weight infants who are born early will get it at 1 month or when they’re discharged from the hospital.
HepB: Second dose should be given 1 to 2 months after the first dose.
DTaP: Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine
Hib: Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine
IPV: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine
PCV: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
RV: Rotavirus vaccine
Hib: This third dose may be needed, depending on the brand of vaccine used in previous Hib immunizations.
RV/Rotavirus: This third dose may be needed, depending on the brand of vaccine used in previous RV immunizations.
6 months and annually
Influenza (Flu): The flu vaccine is recommended every year for children 6 months and older:
Kids younger than 9 who get the flu vaccine for the first time (or who have only had one dose before July 2019) will get it in 2 separate doses at least a month apart.
Those younger than 9 who have had at least 2 doses of flu vaccine previously (in the same or different seasons) will only need 1 dose.
Kids older than 9 need only 1 dose.
The vaccine is given by injection with a needle (the flu shot) or by nasal spray. Both types of vaccine can be used this flu season because they seem to work equally well. Your doctor will recommend which to use based on your child’s age and general health. The nasal spray is only for healthy people ages 2–49. People with weak immune systems or some health conditions (such as asthma) and pregnant women should not get the nasal spray vaccine.
MMR: Measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles) vaccine
HepA: Hepatitis A vaccine; given as 2 shots at least 6 months apart
HPV: Human papillomavirus vaccine, given in 2 shots over a 6- to 12-month period. It can be given as early as age 9. For teens and young adults (ages 15–26 in girls and boys both), it is given in 3 shots over 6 months. It’s recommended for both girls and boys to prevent genital warts and some types of cancer.
Tdap: Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis booster. Also recommended during each pregnancy a woman has.
Which vaccine is given at the age of 10?
Tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough (pertussis) (Tdap) Hepatitis A (HepA) Hepatitis B (HepB)
Why is BCG given at birth?
Background, In most tuberculosis (TB) endemic countries, bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is usually given around birth to prevent severe TB in infants. The neonatal immune system is immature.
How many vaccines are there for viruses?
There are about 20 safe and effective viral vaccines available for use throughout the world. This armamentarium represents one of the most cost-effective tools in public health and preventive medicine.
Why is BCG given in left arm?
The vaccine is given just under the skin (intradermally), usually in the left upper arm. This is the recommended site, so that small scar left after vaccination can be easily found in the future as evidence of previous vaccination.
What are the six killer diseases of a child?
Of great importance to public and child health are the vaccines against the so-called six killer diseases of childhood-measles, pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, tuberculosis and poliomyelitis.
What viruses have a vaccine?
- Chickenpox (Varicella)
- Flu (Influenza)
- Hepatitis A.
- Hepatitis B.
- HPV (Human Papillomavirus)
What are the 3 Live vaccines?
- Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR combined vaccine)
- Yellow fever.
Can BCG be given at any age?
It is recommended that new borns receive the BCG vaccine as soon as they are discharged from the hospital. If for some reason, they miss the BCG vaccination, they can be given the BCG injection anytime up to 5 years of age. It is essential to follow this BCG vaccine schedule to prevent tuberculosis.
What are the 5 childhood diseases?
Common Childhood Illnesses
- Common Cold. It’s not surprising that the common cold is one of the most common childhood illnesses. …
- Ear Infections. Ear infections are some of the most common childhood illnesses. …
- Influenza. …
- Bronchitis. …
- RSV. …
- Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease. …
- Gastroenteritis. …
Which Viruses do not have a vaccine?
Vaccines exist for all sorts of diseases, both viral and bacterial. But not all diseases can be prevented by a vaccine. To date, scientists have been unable to develop vaccines against the viruses that cause the common cold, hepatitis C and HIV.
What is the pediatric disease?
Some of the pediatric diseases include anemia, asthma, chickenpox, diphtheria, leukemia, measles, mumps, pneumonia, polio, tuberculosis, whooping cough, lyme disease, fever, down’s syndrome, dental caries, cystic fibrosis, chagas disease, candidiasis, cancer, bronchiolitis, etc.
What are the four types of vaccines?
There are four categories of vaccines in clinical trials: whole virus, protein subunit, viral vector and nucleic acid (RNA and DNA). Some of them try to smuggle the antigen into the body, others use the body’s own cells to make the viral antigen.
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