Anemia, Types of anemia and Causes, & their management.

Anemia:

Anemia is an abnormal condition characterized by decreased oxygen carrying capacity of blood.

Anemia & types of anemia

Types of Anemia:-

  • Iron deficiency anaemia
  • Megaloblastic anaemia or Folic acid deficiency anemia
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Thalassemia Or cooley’s anemia
  • Aplastic anaemia

Iron deficiency anemia:- Iron deficiency anaemia is characterized by lack of iron (Fe) in body that result lack of hemoglobin formation and decrease oxygen carrying capacity of blood.

Caused:-

  • Less intake of iron
  • Malabsorption of iron
  • Worm infestation
  • Maldigestion
  • Infection
  • Pregnancy

Symptoms:-

  • Weakness
  • Early fatigue
  • Anorexia
  • Pallorness
  • Headache
  • Recurrent infection
  • Low hemoglobin level
  • Dizziness

Diagnosis:-

  • Physical examination
  • History collection
  • Blood investigation

Management:-

Iron deficiency anaemia usually treated in iron supplements provides and increasing iron intake and treating any underlying condition. Parentral iron infusion.

Megaloblastic anemia,or Folic acid deficiency anemia:- It is a type of anaemia in which there is immature RBC production occurs in bone marrow because of Folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency or both.

Caused:-

  • Alcoholism
  • Low intake of Folic acid
  • Maldigestion
  • Pregnancy
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Malabsorption

Symptoms:-

  • Sever Weakness
  • Progressive fatigue
  • Palpitation
  • Glossitis
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Anorexia
  • Fainting
  • Headache
  • Mild jaundice
  • Neurological symptoms
  • Restlessness
  • Lethargy
  • Breathlessness

Diagnosis:-

  • Blood investigation
  • Schilling test
  • Vitamin B12 investigation
  • Serum folate level

Management:-

Folic acid anemia usually treated by Folic acid supplements and Folic acid tablets provides. And healthy diet this includes foods rich in folic acid such as green leafy vegetable.

Sickle Cell anemia:- Sickle Cell anaemia is a congenital hemolytic anaemia characterized by defective hemoglobin that causes RBCs to roughen and become Sickle shaped that are destroyed in spleen thus oxygen carrying of blood is reduced.

Symptoms:-

  • Tachycardia
  • Cardiomegaly
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Dyspnea
  • Jaundice
  • Hepatomegaly
  • Swelling in joints
  • Bodyache
  • Recurrent infection
  • Thrombosis
  • Spleen degeneration
  • Fever
  • Severe pain
  • Restlessness
  • Bone marrow suppression
  • Lethargy

Diagnosis:-

  • Blood investigation
  • Chest X-ray
  • USG
  • Bone marrow aspiration
  • Hemoglobin electrophoresis

Complications:-

  • Delayed growth and development
  • Organ infection
  • Retinopathy
  • Neuropathy
  • Recurrent infection
  • Cerebrovescular accident ( strok)

Management:- Treatment includes medication, blood transfusion rarely a bone marrow transplant.

Thalassemia or cooley’s anemia:- Thalassemia is a genetic disorder characterized by malsynthesis of haemoglobin in RBC and destruction of RBCs that results low oxygen carrying capacity of blood.

Symptoms :-

  • Fatigueness
  • Anorexia
  • Severe weakness
  • Jaundice
  • Reduced body weight
  • Recurrent infection
  • Loss of libido

Diagnosis:-

  • HB level test
  • RBC count
  • Hemoglobin electrophoresis

Management:- thalassemia anaemia, for moderate and severe treatment might include. Frequent blood transfusion and regular blood transfusion regular checks heart and liver function.

Aplastic anemia:- Aplastic anemia Is Anemia results from injury to or destruction of steam cells in bone marrow causing pancytopenia and bone marrow hypoplasia.

Caused :-

  • Genetic disorder
  • Use of certain drugs
  • Toxic agent
  • Exposure to radiation
  • Hepatitis
  • Auto-immunological disorder
  • Chemotherapy
  • IdioPathic

Symptoms:-

  • Chronic fatigueness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Headache
  • Jaundice
  • Tachycardia
  • Redness of cornea
  • Recurrent infection
  • Recurrent fever
  • Dyspnea
  • Profuse bleeding

Diagnosis:-

  • Blood investigation
  • Serum iron level
  • Bone marrow aspiration
  • Chest X-ray
  • Ultrasonography

Complications:-

  • Severe thrombocytopenia
  • Severe infection
  • Severe hemorrhage
  • Internal hemorrhage
  • Strok and Death

Management:- Aplastic anamia initial treatment of acquired blood transfusion and a bone marrow transplant is the only cure for Aplastic anaemia. Bone marrow transplant I am also called steam cells transplant. A Transplant is the preferred treatment for severe aplastic anemia.

I hope that you liked this article.

Thanking you!! ….. By GS India Nursing!!

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