Diarrhea, Definition of diarrhea, Causes & Complications & Diagnosis, Symptoms Management, (By GS India Nursing).

Definition of diarrhea:- Passage of loose liquid of watery stool more than 3 times in day is called diarrhea. Consistency and characteristic of stool is more important, than number.



  • Bacterial– E. Coli, shigella, V. Cholera, Salmonella typhi.
  • Viral infectious cause– Rotavirus ( main cause in children.
  • Fungal and parasites infection– Malaria, Rotavirus, is a man cause of diarrhea (Gastroenteritis, is transmitted via nosocomial or Hospital acquired), (3-24 month child at high risk). After 3 month due to maternal antibody in baby.

Non infection causes:-

  • Indigestion.
  • Over feeding.
  • Any congenital problem.


Acute watery diarrhea– last severe hours or days and includes cholera.

Acute bloody diarrhea– also called dysentery.

Persistent diarrhea– Last 14 days or longer.

Clinical types:-

1. Blood– diarrhoea– mucus– dysentery. 2. Rice Water diarrhoea– vibrio cholera. 3. Pea of stool– typhoid.

Assessment and Symptoms:-

  • Metabolic acidosis.
  • Electrolyte imbalance.
  • Hypokalemia.
  • Abdominal cramps and pain, due to electrolytes disturbance.
  • Sunken fontanel.
  • Poor skin turgor (adult) abdominal site
  • Pinch test positive.
  • Oliguria.
  • Increase specific gravity of urine.
  • Dehydration ( fluid and electrolytes disturbance).
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Blood in the stool.
  • Mucus in the stool.
  • Urgent need to have a bowel movement.


  • Blood test.
  • Stool test.
  • Hydrogen breath test.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy.
  • Upper endoscopy.


  • Fever.
  • Blood.
  • Severe abdominal pain.
  • Weight loss.
  • Dehydration.
  • Vomiting
  • Electrolyte imbalance.


Replacing lost fluids with an ( ORS ),oral rehydration solution, may help to prevent dehydration. Anti diarrheal drugs such as loperamide may also help.

Drinking plenty of water and other electrolytes balanced fluid ( like diluted and pulp- fruit juices, broths sports drinks ( Gatorade) and caffein free sodas).

  • Changing your diet.
  • Cutting back your caffein.
  • Avoid spicy foods and drinks that give you gas.

I hope that you liked this article……..!!

Thanking you…….!!

By GS India Nursing……….!!

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