Lung Cancer, Definition of Lung Cancer, Types & Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis, Complications & Prevention, Treatment & Surgical Management, ( by GS India Nursing).

Definition of Lung Cancer:- Lung cancer is a cancer in which there is malignant growth in lung tissue. (OR). A Cancer that begins in the lungs and most often occurs in people who smoke.

  • Two major types of lung cancer are non- small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Causes of lungs cancer include smoking, second hand smoke, exposure to certain toxins and family history.

Types of lung cancer:-

  • Epidermoid or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Small cell or Oat cell carcinoma.
  • Adenocarcinoma.
  • Large cell or anaplastic carcinoma.

Stages of lung cancer:-

Stage(1), Cancer is in your lung tissue but not your lymph nodes. Stage (2), The disease may have spread to your lymph notes near your lungs. Stage (3), It has spread further into your lymph nodes and middle of your chest.

Causes of lung cancer:-

Smoking causes the majority of lung cancers. Both in smokers and in people exposed to secondhand smoke. But lung cancer occurs in people who never smoked and in those who never had. Prolonged exposure to secondhand smoke. In these cases, there may be no clear cause of lung cancer.

  • Smoking.
  • Air pollution.
  • Asbestos.
  • Iron oxide
  • Arsenic.
  • Ammonium .

Symptoms of lung cancer:-

  • Persistent Coughing.
  • Hoarseness.
  • Wheezing respiration.
  • Severe dyspnea.
  • Haemoptysis.
  • Severe chest pain.
  • Hyperpyrexia.
  • Weakness.
  • Anorexia.
  • Weight loss.
  • Apnea.
  • Excessive restlessness.
  • Facial edema.
  • Pleural effusion.
  • Pulmonary infection.
  • Bronchitis.
  • Pneumonia.
  • Emphysema.
  • Bone pain.
  • Nausea and vomiting

Complications of lung cancer:-

  • Carcinoid syndrome.
  • Hypercalcemia.
  • Metastasis.
  • Bronchial obstruction.
  • Pleural effusion.
  • Vena caval obstruction.
  • Pancarditis.
  • Respiratory failure.
  • Gynecomastia.
  • Death.

Diagnosis of lung cancer:-

An X-ray image of your lungs may reveal and abnormal mass or nodule. A CT scan can be reveal small lesions in your lungs that might not be detected on an x-ray sputum cytology. If you have a cough and are producing sputum. looking at the sputum under the microscope can sometimes reveal the presence of lungs cancer cells.

  • Chest X-ray.
  • Sputum cytological examination.
  • CT scan.
  • Bronchoscopy.
  • Tissue biopsy.
  • Thorecentesis.
  • Mediastinotomy.
  • Lungs angiography.
  • Blood examination.
  • MRI.
  • PET (positron emission test scan).

Treatment of lung cancer:-

People with now small cell lung cancer we treated with surgery, chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. People with small cell lung cancer are usually treated with Radiation therapy and chemotherapy, surgeon an operation where doctors cut outs cancer tissue.

Surgery of lung cancer:-

An operation to remove the lung cancer and a small portion of healthy tissue is called a Wedge resection. Removing a larger area of the lung is called segmental resection. Surgery to remove one of the lungs five lobes is called lobectomy. Removing an entire lung is called pneumonectomy.

Prevention of lung cancer:-

  • Don’t smoke, if you’ve never smoked, don’t start.
  • Eliminating tabacco of smoking.
  • Stop smoking, stop smoking now.
  • Avoid secondhand smoke.
  • Test your home for radon.
  • Avoid carcinogens at work.
  • Eat a diet full of fruits and vegetables.
  • Exercise most days of the weeks.

Three levels of prevention:-

Primary prevention:- intervening before health effects occurs through.

Secondary prevention:- screening to identify disease in the earliest.

Tertiary prevention:- managing disease post diagnosis to slow or stop.

I hope that you liked this article………!!

Thanking you……….!!

By GS India Nursing………!!

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