Seizure ( Epilepsy)

It is called:- seizure disorder.

Definition ;-

A disorder in which nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed, causing seizures. Epilepsy may occur as a result of a genetic disorder or an acquired brain injury, such as a trauma or stroke.

Seizure : an episode of natural dysfunctions.

Convulsion or fits : it is a seizure with motor accompainments, e. g. , jerking of a limb / limb incontinence. Every seizure may not be convulsions.


A neurological disorder marked by sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness or convulsions, associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

It is recurrent attack of loss of activity sensory phenomena and behavioural abnormalities. It is a paroxysmal disorder of nervous system.


During a seizure, a person experiences abnormal behaviour, symptoms and sensations, sometimes including loss of consciousness. There are few symptoms between seizures.

Clinical manifestation

  • Cyanosis
  • Fixed jaw
  • Dilated and fixed pupils
  • Impaired consciousness
  • Excess or loss of Muscle tone or movement
  • Disturbance of autonomic functions of the body
  • Disturbance of behaviour, mood sensation and perception
  • Incontinence of urine
  • Body stiffness

Medical management / ( Pharmalogical therapy)

  • Valproate
  • Primidone
  • Phenytoin
  • Carbamazepine
  • Phenobarbital

Causes of Epilepsy

Epilepsy can have both genetic and acquired causes, with the interaction of these factors in many cases. Established acquired causes include serious Brain Trauma, stroke, tumours and brain problems resulting from a previous infection. In about 60% of cases, the cause is unknown. Epilepsies caused by genetic, congenital or developmental conditions are more common among younger people, while brain tumors and strokes are more likely in older people.

Seizures may also occur as a consequence of other health problems, if they occur right around a specific cause, such as a stroke, head injury toxic ingestion, or metabolic problem, they are known as acute symptomatic seizures and are in the broader classification of seizure related disorders rather than epilepsy itself.

Diagnosis of epilepsy

The diagnosis of epilepsy is typically made based on observation of the seizure onset and electroencephalogram (EEG) to look for abnormal patterns of brain waves and neuroimaging ( CT Scan or MRI) to look at the structure of the brain are also usually part of the initial investigations . while figuring out a specific epileptic syndrome is often attempted, it is not always possible.

Prevention of epilepsy

While many cases are not printable ,efforts to reduce head injuries, provide good care around the time of birth, and reduce environmental parasites such as the pork tapeworm may be effective. Efforts in one part of Central America to decrease rates of pork tapeworm resulted in a 50% decrease in new cases of epilepsy.

Medications of epilepsy

The mainstay treatment of epilepsy is anticonvulsant medications, possible for the person’s entire life. The choice of anticonvulsants is based on seizure type, epilepsy syndrome, other medications used, other health problems and the person’s age and Lifestyle. A single medication is recommended initially, if this is not effective, switching to a single other medication is recommended. Two medications at once is recommended only if a single medication does not work. In about half, the first agent is effective, a second single agent help in about 13% and third or two agents at the same time may help an additional 4% . About 30% of people continue to have seizures despite anticonvulsant treatment.

There are a number of medications available including phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate. Evidence suggests that phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate may be equally effective in both focal and generalized seizures.

Risk factors of epilepsy

  • Age
  • Head injuries
  • Brain infections
  • Seizures in childhood
  • Family history
  • Dementia

Complications of epilepsy

  • Pregnancy complications
  • Falling
  • Car accident
  • Emotional health issues

What is the main cause of epilepsy?

When epilepsy is diagnosed in older adults, it’s sometimes from another neurological issue, like a stroke or a brain tumor. Other causes can be related to genetic abnormalities, prior brain infection, prenatal injuries or developmental disorders. But in about half of people with epilepsy, there’s no apparent cause.

Can I live a normal life with epilepsy?

Many people with epilepsy can conduct a normal life. However, patients who have had epilepsy for a long time or whose epilepsy is difficult to control are at higher risk for unemployment. They may also need assistance in their daily life activities.

At what age does epilepsy usually start?

Epilepsy can start at any age, but usually starts either in childhood or in people over 60. It’s often lifelong, but can sometimes get slowly better over time.

Can you suddenly develop epilepsy?

The most common causes of new onset seizures in adults are structural changes in the brain (for example, stroke, tumor, or brain injury) and infection of the brain. In about 60% of people we don’t know the exact cause of epilepsy.

Is epilepsy a mental illness?

Epilepsy is not a mental illness. In fact, the vast majority of people living with epilepsy have no cognitive or psychological problem. For the most part, psychological issues in epilepsy are limited to people with severe and uncontrolled epilepsy.

Do MRI scans show epilepsy?

Does epilepsy show up on MRI scans? No, not necessarily. An MRI scan can help your doctor understand some of the possible underlying structural causes of your seizures. However, for many people there is no structural cause behind their epilepsy and so the brain scan comes back ‘normal’.

What diet is best for epilepsy?

Doctors usually recommend the ketogenic diet for children whose seizures have not responded to several different seizure medicines.

The “classic” ketogenic diet is a special high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that helps to control seizures in some people with epilepsy.

What vitamin is good for seizures?

Nutrients that may reduce seizure frequency include vitamin B6, magnesium, vitamin E, manganese, taurine, dimethylglycine, and omega-3 fatty acids.

What is the most common treatment for epilepsy?

Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) AEDs are the most commonly used treatment for epilepsy. They help control seizures in around 7 out of 10 of people. AEDs work by changing the levels of chemicals in your brain.

What is the difference between epilepsy and seizure?

A seizure is a single occurrence, whereas epilepsy is a neurological condition characterized by two or more unprovoked seizures.

Can poor diet cause seizures?

Chronic malnutrition from irregular eating habits, including eating too little or eating unhealthy foods, can lead to fainting and seizures.


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