Tetanus, Definition of Tetanus, Pathogen and Transmission, Symptoms & Diagnosis, Complications, prevention and Management (By GS India Nursing).

Definition of Tetanus:- Tetanus is a bacteria communicable disease caused by “Clostridium tetani” and affects nervous system mainly. (OR). A serious disease that makes your muscles, specially the muscles of your face, hard and impossible to move. It is caused by bacteria entering the body through cuts or wounds.

Pathogen and Transmission:- Tetanus is an infection caused by a Bacteria called Clostridium tetani. Spores of tetanus bacteria are everywhere in the invironment, including soil, dust, and manure. The spores develop into bacteria when they enter the body.

Incubation Period:- The incubation period of tetanus varies between 3 and 21 days after infection. Most common occur within 14 days. Symptoms include, jaw cramping or the inability to open the mouth.


  • Jaw cramping. (lockjaw)
  • Sudden, involuntary muscles tightening ( muscles spasms) – often in the stomach.
  • Painful muscles stiffness all over the body.
  • Trouble swallowing.
  • Jerking or starting ( seizures).
  • Headache.
  • Fever and sweating.
  • Changes in blood pressure and fast rate.
  • Cyanosis.
  • Excessive restlessness.
  • Opisthotonus position.
  • Diaphoresis.


  • Vocal card spasms.
  • Broken bones due to severe muscles spasms.
  • Breathing problems.
  • Pneumonia.
  • High blood pressure or abnormal heart rhythms.
  • Pulmonary embolism ( blood clot in the lung).


Doctors diagnose tetanus based on physical exam, Medical and vaccination history, and the sign and symptoms of muscles spasms, muscles rigidity and pain. A laboratory test would likely be used only.

  • The World Health Organization acknowledges the ELISA test as the criterion standard. With a threshold of 0.1IU/ml, to diagnose tetanus immunization status.


Prevention through routine vaccination, Since people cannot naturally acquire immunity to tetanus, the best way to prevent tetanus is to vaccinate your patient. CDC, recommends tetanus vaccines for all infants or children, preteens and adolescents and adults. The best way to protect yourself against tetanus is to get vaccinated before you are exposed.

  • The wound can be washed with clean water, and soap can be used to clean the area around the wound.


Antibiotics, given either orally or by injection, may help fight tetanus bacteria. Other drugs. Other medications might be used to regulate involuntary muscles activity such as your heartbeat and breathing. Morphine might be used for this purpose as well as for sedation.

  • Tetanus can be prevented through immunization with tetanus-toxoid, containing vaccines. (TTCV), However people who recover from tetanus do not have natural immunity and can be infected again.

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By GS India Nursing…….!!

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