Tuberculosis, Definition of Tuberculosis, Types and Cause, Symptoms & Complications, Diagnosis & Treatment, and prevention, ( by GS India Nursing).

Tuberculosis of definition:- Tuberculosis (TB), is a potentially serious infectious disease that effect the lungs. The bacteria that cause tuberculosis are spread from person to person through tiny droplets released into the air by cough and sneezing.

Types of tuberculosis:-

Active TB disease:- Active TB is an illness in which the TB bacteria are rapidly multiplying and invading different organs of the body.

Miliary TB:- Miliary TB rare from of active disease that occurs when TB bacteria find their way into the bloodstream.

Latent TB:- Also called latent tuberculosis infection is when a person is infected mycobacteria tuberculosis, but does not have active TB.

Cause:- Tuberculosis (TB), is caused by a type of bacterium called mycobacterium tuberculosis, It’s spread when a person with active TB disease in their lungs cough or sneezes and someone else inhales the expelled droplets, which contain TB bacteria.


  • Coughing for three weeks or more weeks.
  • Coughing up to blood mucus.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Weight loss.
  • Fever.
  • Fatigue.
  • Chest pain or pain with breathing or coughing.
  • Night sweat.

Tuberculosis can also affect other parts of your body, including the kidneys, spine or brain, when TB occurs outside your lungs sign and symptoms vary according to the organs involved. For example tuberculosis of the spine might cause back pain and tuberculosis in your Kidneys might cause blood in your urine.

Risk factors Tuberculosis:-

  • Poverty.
  • HIV infection.
  • Homelessness.
  • Substance abuse.
  • Begins in jail Or person ( where close contact can spread infection).
  • Taking medication that weakness immune system.
  • Kidney disease.
  • Diabetes.
  • Organ transplant.

Tuberculosis Complications:-

  • Spinal pain.
  • Joint damage.
  • Swelling of the membranes that cover your ( meningitis).
  • Liver or kidney problems.
  • Heart disorder.

Diagnosis:- A positive TB skin test Or TB blood test only talls that a person has been infected with TB bacteria. It does not tell whether the person has latent TB infection ( LTBI) or has progressed TB disease. Other tests such as a chest X-ray and a sample of sputum are, needed to see whether the person has TB disease. The mantoux test tuberculin skin test ( TST), or TB blood test.

Testing for the TB infection:-

  • The TB skin test is it performed by injecting a small amount of fluid ( called tuberculin) into the skin on the lower part of the arm.
  • A person giving the tuberculin skin test must return within 48 to 72 hrs to have a trained health Care worker look for a reaction or the arm.


If you have latent TB your doctor might, recommended treatment with medication if you are at high Risk of developing active TB for active tuberculosis you must take antibiotics for at least 6 to 9 months.

The exact drugs and length of treatment depend on your age, overall health possible drugs resistance and where the infection is in your body.

Most common TB drugs.

If you have latent TB, you might to need to take only one or two types TB drugs active tuberculosis particularly if it’s a drug-resistant strain will require several drugs at once. The most common medications used to treat tuberculosis include.

  • Isoniazid.
  • Rifampicin, ( Rifadin, Rimactane).
  • Ethambutol, ( myambutol).
  • Pyrazinamide.

If you have drug-resistant TB a combination of antibiotics called fluroquinolones and injectable medications such as amikacin Or capreomycin ( capastat), are generally used for 20 to 30 months some types of TB are developing resistance to these medication as well.

Some drugs might be added to therapy to counter drug resistance including.

  • Betaquiline, ( sirturo).
  • Linezoid ( zyvox).

Medications of Side effect:-

Serious side effects of TB drug aren’t common but can be dangerous when they do occur. All tuberculosis medications can be toxic to your liver. When Taking these medications, call your doctor immediately, if you have any of the following .

  • Nausea & vomiting.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • A yellow color to your skin ( jaundice).
  • Red, and Orange colour urine.
  • Easy bruising or bleeding.
  • Blurred vision.

Vaccination of tuberculosis:-

The BCG is currently the only licensed vaccine against TB. And has been in use science 1921, it is one of the most widely used vaccine worldwide yet we still see around 9 million new cases of TB annually , a treatment to the BCG’s limit effectiveness. The BCG is 80℅ effective in preventing TB for 15 years.

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By GS India Nursing………..!!

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