Factors affecting the growth and development of children

  1. Heredity
  2. Environment
  3. Hormones
  4. Nutrition
  5. Sex
  6. Exercise and health
  7. Geographical influences


The process by which physical or mental qualities pass from parent to child.


Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. The study of heredity in biology is genetics.

What does heredity mean?

Heredity, the sum of all biological processes by which particular characteristics are transmitted from parents to their offspring.

What is heredity with example?

Heredity is defined as the characteristics we get genetically from our parents and our relatives before them. An example of heredity is the likelihood that you will have blue eyes. An example of heredity is your possibility of having breast cancer based on family history.

What is the basis of heredity?

Genes are the basic units of heredity, which are expressed as a functional product and are responsible for the specific phenotypic characteristics. Genes are the short stretch of DNA sequences that code for specific polypeptide chains.

What is in a gene?

Genes are made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. However, many genes do not code for proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases.

What is Gene example?

For example, if both of your parents have green eyes, you might inherit the trait for green eyes from them. Or if your mom has freckles, you might have freckles too because you inherited the trait for freckles. Genes aren’t just found in humans – all animals and plants have genes, too.


All the physical surroundings on Earth are called the environment. The environment includes everything living and everything nonliving. The atmosphere is the air – the layer of nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases that surrounds Earth. All the oceans and other bodies of water on Earth make up the hydrosphere.

What is the importance of environment for children?

Safe, responsive, and nurturing environments are an important part of supporting the learning and development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Such environments also help to prevent challenging behaviors and serve as a core component of interventions for infants and young children with identified disabilities.

What is a good environment for a child?

Positive early learning environments start with you when you create a positive social and emotional environment that is built on caring and responsive relationships. Children can’t explore and learn, experience joy and wonder, until they feel secure. They need to trust their caregivers and know their needs will be met.

What is a positive environment in childcare?

A positive environment encourages the holistic development of all children. The physical environment affects how children learn and develop. The space available inside and outside the building affects how resources are set up. It is important that the environment is welcoming, clean, safe and stimulating.


A substance in your body that influences growth and development.


Hormones are chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body. After being made in one part of the body, they travel to other parts of the body where they help control how cells and organs do their work.

How are hormones made?

Hormones are produced by glands and sent into the bloodstream to the various tissues in the body. They send signals to those tissues to tell them what they are supposed to do. When the glands do not produce the right amount of hormones, diseases develop that can affect many aspects of life.

How do hormones really change us?

Hormones play a huge role in your normal functioning. They control heart rate, sleep cycles, sexual function, and reproduction. Your metabolism, appetite, growth and development, mood, stress, and body temperatures are all affected by hormones.

What do hormones do to your body?

Hormones are chemical messengers that travel throughout the body coordinating complex processes like growth, metabolism, and fertility. They can influence the function of the immune system, and even alter behavior. Before birth, they guide development of the brain and reproductive system.

Where are hormones made?

Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal glands, and pancreas. In addition, men produce hormones in their testes and women produce them in their ovaries.


The food that you eat and the way that it affects your health. Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism uses food to support its life. It includes ingestion, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. The science that studies the physiological process of nutrition is called nutritional science. 

What do you mean nutrition?

Nutrition is about eating a healthy and balanced diet. Food and drink provide the energy and nutrients you need to be healthy. Understanding these nutrition terms may make it easier for you to make better food choices.

Why nutrition is important for health?

A healthy diet throughout life promotes healthy pregnancy outcomes, supports normal growth, development and ageing, helps to maintain a healthy body weight, and reduces the risk of chronic disease leading to overall health and well-being.

What are types of nutrition?

Broadly, there are two types of nutrition among living organisms, namely:-

Autotrophic mode,

Heterotrophic mode,

What are the two types of nutrients?

Nutrients can be divided into two categories:- macronutrients, and micronutrients. Macronutrients are those nutrients that the body needs in large amounts. These provide the body with energy (calories). Micronutrients are those nutrients that the body needs in smaller amounts.


The male, female, or intersex division of a species, especially as differentiated with reference to the reproductive functions.

A male, female, or intersex label assigned to a person at birth.

*Exercise and health-

How does exercise help with health?

Regular physical activity can improve your muscle strength and boost your endurance. Exercise delivers oxygen and nutrients to your tissues and helps your cardiovascular system work more efficiently. And when your heart and lung health improve, you have more energy to tackle daily chores.

Should I exercise every day?

As a general goal, aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity every day. If you want to lose weight, maintain weight loss or meet specific fitness goals, you may need to exercise more. Reducing sitting time is important, too. The more hours you sit each day, the higher your risk of metabolic problems.

Is exercising everyday good?

How much is ideal? A weekly day of rest is often advised when structuring a workout program, but sometimes you may feel the desire to work out every day. As long as you’re not pushing yourself too hard or getting obsessive about it, working out every day is fine.

Why is it better to exercise in the morning?

Generally, working out in the morning is better because it’s easier to commit to and get done before the day’s responsibilities get in the way. In the evening, many people feel tired after work or school. It can be difficult to find motivation or time to exercise.

How much exercise is too much?

For the rest of us, doctors recommend 150 minutes of physical activity. However, even in those 150 minutes, you can overdo it and push yourself too hard. To know the effects of over-exercising, you should assess how it makes you feel physically and emotionally.

What happens if you don’t exercise?

Not getting enough physical activity can lead to heart disease – even for people who have no other risk factors. It can also increase the likelihood of developing other heart disease risk factors, including obesity, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes.

*Geographical influences-

Geography influences¬†the development of the people who occupy given areas. The study of human interaction with the land is called “cultural geography,” and it includes economics, migrations, religion and language.

What geographic factors influence patterns?

The spatial distribution and density of the world’s population reflects a variety of factors. These include the influence of such physical features such as topography, soils, vegetation, climate types, and the availability of resources.

What are geographical influences on climate?

The three most important geographic variables that influence climate are latitude, elevation, and proximity to a body of water.

What are examples of geographical factors?

Location, Secondly, geographical location plays a part in access to markets.



Climate, One of the most important factors in development is geography, where the country is in the world, and climate.

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