Q 1- The normal respiration rate in a newborn is –

*Let us see some of the questions asked in Nursing exams, in short form and in alternate form*

Q 1- The normal respiration rate in a newborn is –

A. 15 – 20 breaths per minute

B. 20 – 30 breaths per minute

C. 30 – 60 breaths per minute

D. 60- 80 breaths per minute

Q 2- Furosemide is a –

A. Osmotic diuretic

B. Potassium sparing diuretic

C. Loop diuretic

D. Thizaid diuretic

Q 3- Myocardial infection is also known as-

A. Heart attack

B. Heart failure

C. Angina attack

D. Dysrhy thmias

Q 4- Nitroglycerine is a-

A. Cardiac glycoside

B. Vasodilator

C. Diuretic

D. Angiotensin converting enzyme

Q 5- In following which is lower Airway disorder-

A. Rhinitis

B. Pharyngitis

C. Asthma

D. Laryngitis

**The answers to the above given optional questions are given below**

Ans. 1- C. 30 – 60 breaths per minute,

Ans. 2- C. Loop diuretic,

Ans. 3- A. Heart attack,

Ans. 4- B. Vasodilator,

Ans. 5- C. Asthma,

**Things to note**

Loop diuretic,

Loop diuretics are a powerful type of diuretic that work by inhibiting the sodium-potassium-chloride (Na+/K+/2Cl) co-transporter in the thick ascending loop of Henle (hence the name loop diuretic), which is located in the kidneys.

What is loop diuretics used for?

Loop diuretics are medications used in the management and treatment of fluid overload conditions such as heart failure, nephrotic syndrome or cirrhosis, and hypertension, in addition to edema.

What is an example of a loop diuretic?

Bumetanide (Bumex) Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) Furosemide (Lasix).

What is the best loop diuretic?

Furosemide is by far the most common oral loop diuretic, but patients with resistance to oral furosemide therapy may benefit from trials with second-generation oral loop diuretics (bumetanide and torasemide). These may be more efficacious, due to their increased oral bioavailability and potency.

What are the side effects of loop diuretics?

Common and shared side effects of the loop diuretics include dizziness, headache, gastrointestinal upset, hypernatremia, hypokalemia and dehydration.

Does loop diuretic lower blood pressure?

Loop diuretics are not recommended in current hypertension guidelines largely due to the lack of outcome data. Nevertheless, they have been shown to lower blood pressure and to offer potential advantages over thiazide-type diuretics. Torsemide offers advantages of longer duration of action and once daily dosing.

What is the difference between a diuretic and a loop diuretic?

They may also be used with antihypertensive drugs to control high blood pressure (hypertension). Lasix is an anthranilic acid derivative that is a type of loop diuretic while thiazides are another class of diuretic. A difference is that loop diuretics are more potent than thiazides.

Do loop diuretics cause hyponatremia?

Hyponatremia is an uncommon, but serious, complication of diuretic therapy. Thiazide diuretics are more likely than loop diuretics to cause hyponatremia. Loop diuretics inhibit sodium (Na+) transport in the renal medulla and prevent the generation of a maximal osmotic gradient.

Can diuretics damage kidneys?

Doctors use these medicines, also known as water pills, to treat high blood pressure and some kinds of swelling. They help your body get rid of extra fluid. But they can sometimes dehydrate you, which can be bad for your kidneys.

Heart attack,

called: myocardial infarction,

A blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle.
A heart attack is a medical emergency. A heart attack usually occurs when a blood clot blocks blood flow to the heart. Without blood, tissue loses oxygen and dies.

What causes heartattack?

A heart attack occurs when one or more of your coronary arteries becomes blocked. Over time, a buildup of fatty deposits, including cholesterol, form substances called plaques, which can narrow the arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition, called coronary artery disease, causes most heart attacks.

How can you detect a heart attack?

Tests to diagnose a heart attack include:-

Blood tests. Certain heart proteins slowly leak into your blood after heart damage from a heart attack.

Electrocardiogram (ECG). This first test done to diagnose a heart attack records electrical signals as they travel through your heart.

How long do heart attacks last?

Mild heart attack symptoms might only occur for two to five minutes then stop with rest. A full heart attack with complete blockage lasts much longer, sometimes for more than 20 minutes.

Can stress cause heart attacks?

Stress may lead to high blood pressure, which can pose a risk for heart attack and stroke. Stress also may contribute to such cardiovascular disease risks as smoking, overeating and lack of physical activity.

What foods prevent heart attacks?

The best diet for preventing heart disease is one that is full of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, fish, poultry, and vegetable oils; includes alcohol in moderation, if at all; and goes easy on red and processed meats, refined carbohydrates, foods and beverages with added sugar, sodium, and foods with trans .

Can heart attack symptoms last for days?

This varies from patient to patient. In some, the pain can be continuous while for others, it might start and stop again. These symptoms can last for a couple of minutes or several hours.

Vasodilator,

A widening of blood vessels, usually near the surface of skin, leading to increased blood flow with flushing or warmth.

What is vasodilator used for?

Vasodilators are medications that open (dilate) blood vessels. They affect the muscles in the walls of the arteries and veins, preventing the muscles from tightening and the walls from narrowing. As a result, blood flows more easily through the vessels. The heart doesn’t have to pump as hard, reducing blood pressure.

What is a natural vasodilator?

Leafy greens like spinach and collard greens are high in nitrates, which your body converts into nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator. Eating nitrate-rich foods may help improve circulation by dilating blood vessels, allowing your blood to flow more easily.

Are vasodilators safe?

vasodilators are safe when taken as prescribed. However, there are a few groups of people that should avoid these types of meditations. People with severe kidney failure should not take vasodilator ACE inhibitors.

Is vasodilation a good thing?

Vasodilation is an important aspect of inflammation. It increases blood flow to the area and also increases the permeability, or leakiness, of the blood vessel walls. Both of these factors help immune cells to more effectively reach the affected area.

How are vasodilators administered?

The most commonly used vasodilators are nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, and hydralazine. Nitroprusside and nitroglycerin, which have a fast onset and short duration of action, should be administered as continuous intravenous infusions.

What is the most common side effect of vasodilators?

Heart palpitations (fluttering or pounding heartbeat) Rapid heartbeat. Fluid retention. Nausea or vomiting.

How can we prevent vasodilation?

Cardio exercises, or those that call for intensive breathing such as running, swimming, or biking, are known to be most effective. Engaging daily in at least 30 minutes of cardio workouts can help normalize blood vessel configuration and prevent pathological vasoconstriction in the long run.

What hormone causes vasodilation?

Known vasoactive hormones include serotonin, norepinephrine, insulin, and endothelin, among others. Nitric oxide (NO) is the major effector of vasodilation; its release from endothelial cells by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) leads to relaxation.

Asthma,

called: bronchial asthma,

A condition in which a person’s airways become inflamed, narrow and swell and produce extra mucus, which makes it difficult to breathe.
Asthma can be minor or it can interfere with daily activities. In some cases, it may lead to a life-threatening attack.

What are the main causes of asthma?

Respiratory infections, such as the common cold.

Airborne allergens, such as pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander or particles of cockroach waste.

Air pollutants and irritants, such as smoke.

Physical activity.

Cold air.

How does asthma feel?

When the inflamed airways react, they get narrow, and make extra mucus so it becomes hard to breathe. Common asthma symptoms are wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. When these symptoms get worse, it’s an asthma attack.

What is the best treatment for asthma?

Long-term control medications such as inhaled corticosteroids are the most important medications used to keep asthma under control. These preventive medications treat the airway inflammation that leads to asthma symptoms. Used on a daily basis, these medications can reduce or eliminate asthma flare-ups.

Thanks !!

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