Otitis media, (O.M.), Definition of Otitis media, Types and clinical manifestation, Medical management and Surgical Management, Myringotomy, Tympanoplasty, (by GS India Nursing).

Definition:- It is an inflammation of middle ear or infection of middle ear caused by entrance of pathogenic organisms.

An infection of the air-filled space behind the eardrum ( the middle ear).

An ear infection is usually caused by bacteria or virus.

Causes:- otitis media is inflammation or infection located in the middle ear. Otitis media can occur as a result of a cold, sore throat, or respiratory infection.


It is mainly of three types.

  • Acute O.M. (Suppurative otitis media).
  • Serous O.M.
  • Chronic O.M.

Acute otitis media:-

It is an acute infection of middle ear usually lasting less than 6 weeks.

Serous otitis media:-

It means accumulation of serous fluid in middle ear without evidence of active infection, but fluids results from a negative pressure in the middle ear caused by tube Eustachian obstruction.

Chronic otitis media:-

It is the results of repeated episode of acute O.M. causing irreversible tissue pathology and persistent perforation of tympanic membrane. It also leads to mastoid bone infection.

Clinical manifestation:- (Acute otitis media).

  • Pain.
  • Hearing loss.
  • Purulent drainage (Otorrhea).
  • Fever may be rise to 104°f 105°f.
  • Irritability.
  • Headache.
  • Anorexia.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

Chronic otitis media:-

  • Otalgia (ear pain).
  • Redness and swelling.
  • Perforation of tympanic membrane.
  • Tinnitus (Ringing sound hears in ears).
  • Dizziness.
  • Building of tympanic membrane.
  • Obstruction of Eustachian tube.


  • Meningitis.
  • Brain abscesses.
  • Epidural abscesses.
  • Mastoiditis.
  • Permanent sensorineural.
  • Hearing loss.
  • Death.

Medical management:-

Broad spectrum antibiotics therapy. Amoxycillin (Amoxyclave). Penicillin. Macrolides (Azithromycin). Trimpethoprim — sulfamethoxazole ( bacterium). May be used in penicillin allergy. — Antihistamines e. g. Phinamine maleate, chlorphenamine. NSAIDs drugs, (for inflammation and pain). aspirin. Antiseptic ear wash with antibiotic therapy in case of chronic otitis media.

Surgical Management:-


Incision of the eardrum to create an artificial opening, either to allow infected fluid to drain from the middle ear in acute otitis media.


A surgical operation to expose the middle ear and allow access to the ossicles. It is usually performed by using around the eardrum and turning it forwards.


Surgical repair of tympanic membrane ( eardrum) or surgical repair of a perforated eardrum by grafting.

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By GS India Nursing…….!!

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