Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing Key points, Important for all Nursing competitive Exams:

  • Infacany- 0-1 years of age is known as infacancy. The time when someone is a baby or a very young child.
  • Toddler- Toddler age is (12to 36months )1-3 years. A young child who has only just learnt to walk.
  • BCG – BCG vaccine is given by intradermal route at birth. Full form of BCG is Bacilli Calmette Guerin. BCG is a vaccine for tuberculosis disease .Many foreign-born persons have been BCG- vaccinated. BCG is used in many countries with the high prevalence of TB to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. If BCG has not given at birth, then it should be given at 6 weeks of age. BCG vaccine is given on the left upper arm. Its does is 0.05ml when it is given at birth and 0.1 ml when given at 6 weeks of age.
  • DPT – DPT vaccine is a combined vaccine which is given to prevent diphtheria, pertusis and tetanus. It is given at the age of 16 – 24 months. At 6 weeks, 10 weeks and 14 weeks of age, now a days Pentafive vaccine is administered in place of DPT vaccine. Pentafive vaccine protects the child from following diseases-
  • 1- Diphtheria
  • 2- Pertusis
  • 3- Tetanus
  • 4- Hepatitis- B
  • 5- Hemophilus influenza bacteria (Hib)
  • APGAR – In APGAR scoring observation of heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, reflex activity and colour is done. The assessment of APGAR score should be done at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. The total apgar score of 8-10 suggests that the newborn is adjusting to the extrauterine life. Total apgar score of 0-4 in a newborn suggests severe distress.
  • Haemophilia – Haemophilia is inherited abnormality of blood coagulation.It is primarily found in males and transmitted by female carriers.
  • Cretinism – Cretinism occures due to deficiency of thyroxine hormone. Cretinism can be due to deficiency of iodine in the mother diet during pregnancy. In other words we can say, the word “cretinism” is an old term for the state of mental and physical retardation resulting from untreated congenital hypothyroidism, usually due to iodine deficiency from birth because of low iodine levels in the soil and local food sources.
  • Jaundice – jaundice is an important and common symptom of liver disease. Jaundice may occur if the liver cannot efficiently process red blood cells as they break down. It is normal in healthy newborns and usually clears on its own. At other ages, it may signal infection or liver disease. Jaundice happens when there is too much bilirubin,a yellow -orange substance, in your blood. It is found in your red blood cells .When those cell die, the liver filters it from the bloodstream. But if something’s wrong and your liver cannot keep up, bilirubin builds up and can cause your skin to look yellow.
  • Chicken pox – chickenpox is an acute and highly communicable disease caused by vericella zoster virus. A highly contagious viral infection which causes and itchy ,blister – like rash on the skin. It usually starts on the chest, back and face .It then spreads to the rest of the body. The rash and other symptoms, such as fever, tiredness and headaches ,usually last 5 to 7 days.
  • Dwarfism – Dwarfism occurs due to hyposecretion of pituitary gland. Dwarfish is short stature that results from a genetic or medical condition. Dwarfism is generally defined as an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches or less.
  • Whooping cough – It is mainly the disease of the infants and pre -school children. Whooping cough is particularly dangerous for infants. Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. It is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis.
  • Tuberculosis – The bacteria that cause TB are spread when an infected person coughs are sneezes . Tuberculosis is a potentially serious infections disease that mainly affects the lungs .Tuberculosis is a communicable disease caused by “mycobacterium tuberculosis” which is an acid fast bacilli. Tuberculosis ,polio, diphtheria, pertussis ,tetanus and measles are the six killer diseases. Anti tubercular drugs such as isoniazid, rifampicin,pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin are used to treat tuberculosis.
  • Mumps – It is a viral infection,that affects parotid glands , the salivary glands below and in front of the ears. It is easily preventable by a vaccine. The disease spreads through infected saliva.
  • Cleft lip – cleft lip which is a congenital disorder, is generally repaired by z-shaped suture to reduce notching of the lip.
  • Rotavirus – Rotavirus is most common cause of severe diarrhoeal diseases in infants.
  • Diabetes insipidus – The diabetes insipidus occures due to deficiency of antidiuretic hormone which is secreted by posterior pituitary.
  • Dwarfism – It occurs due to hyposecretion of pituitary gland.
  • Greenstick fractures – Greenstick fractures are the most common fractures in children.
  • Spina bifida – spina bifida is a neural tube defect.
  • Down’s syndrome – Down’s syndrome is the commonest chromosomal disorder.
  • Otitis media – Otitis media is a common ear disorder in children.
  • Polyuria – polyuria is an abnormal condition in which urine output is more than a normal level.
  • Antidiuretic hormone – Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH) is secreted by posterior pituitary.
  • Myopia – Myopia is also termed as nearsighted -ness . In nearsighted – ness child can see the objects placed near by but unable to see the objected placed at distance.
  • Hyperopia – Hyperopia is also termed as for sightedness. In far sightedness, the child can see the distant objects but unable to see the nearby placed objects.
  • Anaemia – Anaemia is the most common blood disorder in infants and children.
  • Aplastic anaemia – Aplastic anaemia is caused by bone marrow depression.
  • Thalassemia – Thalassemia is a hereditary hemolytic anaemia.
  • Iron deficiency anaemia – Iron deficiency anaemia is a microcytic hypochromic anaemia.
  • Megaloblastic anaemia – It is deficiency of vitamin B12 and Folic acid.
  • Diphtheria – Diphtheria is mainly transmitted by droplet infection. It is a bacterial disease. Now a days pentavalent vaccine is used for the prevention of diphtheria.
  • Hepatitis-A – Hepatitis -A is most commonly transmitted by feco oral route.
  • Phototherapy – Phototherapy is used for the Treatment of Jaundice.
  • Preterm – The infants who born before 37 completed weeks of gestation known as preterm.
  • Oxytocin hormone – Oxytocin hormone is secreted by posterior pituitary and it causes milk ejection from the glands into lectiferous sinuses, and lactiferous ducts.
  • Bilirubin – Bilirubin is the end product of the catabolism of heme.

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