Blood is our body fluid. The heart pumps blood around the body. Blood, fluid that transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells and carries away carbon dioxide and other waste products. Your blood is made up of liquid and solids. The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. Hemoglobin is in red blood cells. White blood cells help fight infections and heal wounds.
There are 4 main blood groups written bellow-
Blood group A – has A antigens on the red blood cells with anti-B antibodies in the plasma.
Blood group AB – has both A and B antigens, but no antibodies.The universal recipient blood type is AB positive .
Blood group B – has B antigens with anti-A antibodies in the plasma.
Blood group O – has no antigens, but both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma. It’s the universal donor.
Your blood group is determined by the genes you inherit from your parents.
Many types of blood tests-
Almost every disease ranging from cancer, HIV/AIDS, coronary heart disease, diabetes, endocrine disorders, to anemia can be detected by blood tests. Blood tests offer an important snapshot of your overall health. They’re also a good way to catch illness or disease early or see how well your body responds to treatments for various conditions.There are different types of blood tests which need to be done for different individuals, based on their lifestyle, age, sex and several other factors.
Functions of blood-
- Calcium blood test,
- Cholesterol and lipid test,
- ESR Test,
- PSA test,
- Blood glucose test,
- Estrogen blood test,
- Thyroid test,
- Complete blood count,
- Basic metabolic panel,
- Complete metabolic panel,
- Enzyme markers,
- Thyroid panel,
- Lipid panel,
- Sexually transmitted disease tests,
- Coagulation panel,
- C-reactive protein test,
- DHEA- sulfate serum test.
Blood has many different functions, including- transporting oxygen and nutrients to the lungs and tissues. forming blood clots to prevent excess blood loss. carrying cells and antibodies that fight infection. bringing waste products to the kidneys and liver, which filter and clean the blood.
What is the human blood colour?
Human blood is red because hemoglobin, which is carried in the blood and functions to transport oxygen, is iron-rich and red in color.
A blood bank is a center where blood gathered as a result of blood donation is stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusion. The term “blood bank” typically refers to a division of a hospital where the storage of blood product occurs and where proper testing is performed to reduce the risk of transfusion related adverse events. However, it sometimes refers to a collection center, and some hospitals also perform collection. Blood banking includes tasks related to blood collection, processing, testing, separation, and storage.
Blood Transfused Types-
Platelets transfusion is transfused to those who suffer from low platelet count. Platelets can be stored at room temperature for up to 5–7 days. Single donor platelets, which have a more platelet count but it is bit expensive than regular.
Red blood cells or packed cells is transfused to patients with anemia. It also helps to improve the oxygen saturation in blood. It can be stored at 1.0 °C-6.0 °C for 35–45 days.
Plasma transfusion is indicated to patients with liver failure, severe infections or serious burns. Fresh frozen plasma can be stored at a very low temperature of -25 °C for up to 12 months. The separation of plasma from a donor’s blood is called plasmapheresis.
Whole blood which is blood transfused without separation.
What is the blood pressure and its types–
Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure.
There are two types of blood pressure – Systolic blood pressure refers to the pressure inside your arteries when your heart is pumping , diastolic pressure is the pressure inside your arteries when your heart is resting between beats.
Blood pressure in adults–
Normal:-Normal blood pressure in adults is any blood pressure below 120/80. Elevated:- In adults, elevated blood pressure is a systolic reading of 120-129 and a diastolic reading below 80. Hypertension stage I:– This stage includes blood pressures ranges of 130-139 (systolic) or 80-89 (diastolic).
Components of Blood–
White Blood Cells/WBC
Red Blood Cells/RBC
White blood cells (leukocytes)-
The number of white blood cells in a microliter of blood usually ranges from 3700-11000per microliter. Higher or lower levels of white blood cells can indicate disease. White blood cells are part of the body’s immune system. They help the body fight infection and other diseases. Types of white blood cells are granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells and B cells). The lifespan of white blood cells ranges from 13 to 20 days, after which time they are destroyed in the lymphatic system.
Red blood cells (Erythrocytes)-
Red blood cells, also referred to as red cells, red blood corpuscles, hematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate’s principal means of delivering oxygen to the body tissues-via blood flow through the circulatory system. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Its work, transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which they carry to the lungs to be expelled.The normal RBC range for men is 4.7 to 6.1 million cells per microliter. The lifespan of a red blood cell is around 120 days.
Platelets Cells Thrombocytosis–
A very small blood cell, shaped like a disc. Platelets make your blood become thicker so that it clots when you cut yourself. It is found in the blood and spleen. Platelets are pieces of very large cells in the bone marrow called megakaryocytes. They help form blood clots to slow or stop bleeding and to help wounds heal. A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. The lifespan of platelets is about 9 to 12 days.
The main role of plasma is to take nutrients, hormones, and proteins to the parts of the body that need it. Cells also put their waste products into the plasma. Plasma is the liquid portion of blood. About 55% of our blood is plasma, and the remaining 45% are red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets that are suspended in the plasma. Plasma is about 92% water. Plasma is the largest part of your blood. When separated from the rest of the blood, plasma is a light yellow liquid. Plasma carries water, salts and enzymes. Plasma is the yellowish fluid in blood.
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